Evia inhabited during the Paleolithic and Neolithic times. During the Early Helladic period the island began to flourish an important role in this development of Metalworking where the Evians are excelled skilled coppersmiths called the mines of Halkidiki.
Since ancient times the historic relationship between Euboean Kymi and Kymi in Campania - Cuma (Italy), essentially the first Greek colony in the West. The Euboeans arrived around 750 BC and brought their written characters of the Euboean alphabet. The local inhabitants received it without change and created the later Latin alphabet. The letters C, F, L, P, m, R, S, X which differentiate the Latin alphabet from the Greek alphabet comes from the Euboean alphabet of Kymi.
In geometric times, heyday began in Evia. During this period these artisans where known for their pottery workshops, ceramic arts and were characterized by their highly developed trade and shipping.
They acquired ships and became a commercial force. The shipping developed and so they carried everywhere metal goods and vessels exchanged other products.
Eretria was also great Evoiki city, the second largest town in Evia and was flourishing mainly during 800-700 B.C. and the classical period. There are two possibilities for the derivation of its name: it may come from the verb "ereso" which means "row" as the town had a strong navy, or from the word arotro (plough) which became arotria and finally Eretria as the inhabitants were landowners.
The story of Evia inconsistent since ancient times to Skyros, which today belongs to Evia and the two islands together, constitute the Prefecture of Evia.
Skyros has previously had various names mainly due to its morphology, as Aigivotos, Anemoes, Pelagia, Dolopia Perirrytos and Skyros because the porosity of the stone quarries. It was inhabited from the Neolithic period and flourished in the early Bronze Age, with a top time of the Mycenaean period. And the reference is felt in Greek mythology several times because of the top four mythical figures: Theseus, Lycomedes, Achilles and Neoptolemus.
Skyros installed first Pelasgians together with the Carians, their Leleges, Driopes, Dolopes, and Chalcis and ends the Athenians in 475 eg and settled by creating a small Athens. 323 BC was the struggle between Athens and Macedonia to dominate , which passed into the hands of the victorious Macedonians as a new rule by the Romans in 197 BC
Today in the island of Evia the following archaic theaters and monuments have been rescued.
The Dragon Houses of Southern Evia: Widely known ancient monuments Karystia. They are a group of twenty monumental stone constructions, mostly square or rectangular. The best preserved is the dragon on top of Mount Ochi, north of Karystou and complex Palli - Lakka in Styra. Other Drakospita identified in the mountainous areas around the Styra, as the positions Limiko, Ilkizes, Kourthea, amino and lower in Niborio and position vigkla in Poplar Nea Styra and elsewhere. Two Drakospita are identified in central Evia, in term and near Dirfy Vatontas.
Characteristics of drakospita are steepand the supervisory position in which they were built, the construction details of megalithic masonry and input, but mostly the way their housing in ekforic system ( big heavy slates converge in layers of two opposite walls ). The dimensions of dragon houses (drakospita) range from about 5 to 13 m.
Numerous theories have been said on its use, purpose, construction and dating period of the drakospita. It is indicative that especially the dragon house (drakospito) nestles just underneath Ochi’s highest peak. In southern Karystos over 20 such houses ( drakospita) have been found, most of them in the region of Styra. The one near Mt. Ochi is the most significant. This ancient rectangular structure measuring 4.85 metres by 9.80 is made of huge stones with no mortar. The entrance is on the long side, in contrast to ancient temples whose entrance was on one of the shorter sides. The walls are so thick one naturally imagines supermen placing the stones in rows with enviable skill.
The ancient theater of Eretria is the most impressive of the monuments of ancient Eretria with the temple of Dionysus. This is one of the oldest known sites of the species. Based on evidence it was constructed in the 5th century BC after the Persian destruction and rebuilding of the city, while the period of greatest prosperity was during the 4th century BC
The Kastri of Kymi another city that began at the end of the Neolithic period in the 4th or 3rd BC century, where archaeological excavations have found a settlement in Castri - Rivers - Kymi & citadel fortification wall with buildings of the 4th century, assuming that is the ancient Kymi. From here began the founders of the eponymous colony in Campania, Italy, (775-750 BC). And is considered the oldest Greek colony in the West.
The Ancient fortress at Phylla dominates the hill just east of the village, known in ancient times from the wine region of Lelantine out of Halkida. From the findings of the excavation and the construction method, the fort has been dated back to the Late Archaic period. This is the period when the Athenians with their allies Eretrieis subordinate Halkida, which was allied with the Boeotians. This battle took place in 508 BC, while a little later, in 506 BC, the Athenians sent 4,000 colonists to Evia to exploit the land in Lilantio field and impose democracy in the center of the town. This may be an explanation of the construction of the fortress on the hill, by the Athenians, with the aim of protecting Klerouchoi from the disgruntled Chalkideans. The duration of operation was not great, and a few years later, in 490 BC, Evia conquered by the Persians and of course the fort was no longer justifiable. When after the Persian wars Chalkideans recaptured the area, had no reason to use the fortress, which probably demolished.
The Mycenaean tomb at Katakalo is the best preserved Mycenaean tomb in Evia. Located about two kilometers north of the village, nearly five miles from the main road Chalkis_Aliveri. The entrance to the tomb is by road, length 5.40 m, the sides of which are lined with rubble plakarous small. The road ends at the mouth of the tomb, height 1.65 m and a width of 0.80 m, through which was the entrance to the vault, which is the burial chamber. The mouth is covered with stone lintel, which opened the characteristic relieving triangle. The dome is built from local slate in ekforic system, has an internal diameter of 5.30 m and a maximum preserved height of 4.70 m .
The Roman Baths Aliveri revealed during excavations carried out in the period 1995-1997 in the field of power station in Karavos - Aliveri, an interesting monument of the late Roman period. As is apparent from their architectural form and the findings revealed within them, were constructed in the 4th century. A.D. and continued to operate until the 7th century. A.D. Given the fact that in Evia, there has been identified to date facilities baths of Roman times in the major cities,of Chalkis, Eretria, Aidipsos, and most likely also in Karystos, it is highly probable that the Aliveri baths are part of an extended activity within a settlement that should have flourished accordingly in terms of residential development.
In the field of Roman palaestra in Halkida took part athletic, which were held in the ancient city, and view the athletic ideal of residents. The fighting spirit had developed relatively early. This witnesses also the ancient historians, but also the relevant inscriptions, representations sports event pottery and mosaic themselves sporting venues they were discovered. One of these areas has recently come to light in the center of town and was identified with arena. Found an expropriated property, the street Arethousis and in contact with the western side of the factory DARING . Today, only a third of the total surface area is maintained of approximately total area of 222 sq.m.
The palaestrae in antiquity were outdoor sporting or semi-outdoor seating, while nearby were baths for use by athletes. From the original building the foundations have been preserved and large sections of its flooring. The existing yard today is adorned with mosaics made of square tesserae, black, white, reddish and pinkish imprinted with athletic performances.
The arena of Halkida may be connected with the Roman Titus as an inscription was found at the site, indicating that the municipality Chalcis dedicates gymnasium Tito and Hercules.
The Bull of Oreoi, a marble statue larger than natural (length 3.28 m and preserved height 1.30 m ) The animal is represented standing, with the head bent, in an attacking position. The lower part of the legs, below the knees, and the horns are missing. The bull belonged to a tomb monument of the 4th century BC The statue was found in the sea, the port of Oreos in 1965.
The Cave of Agia Triada is located at the foot of the Mount Ochi, and about 3km from the village of Kalyvia. It is the largest cave in southern Evia. The human presence in the cave is dated to the early Neolithic period ( from the oldest to date in the area) , the Late Neolithic II and the early Bronze Age , while sporadic evidence exists for its use in historic times .
On the island of Skyros is located on the northeastern coast is a great archaeological site the Ancient Settlement of Palamari, consisting of the settlement and the harbor and is of great historical importance because it is one of the most important prehistoric settlements of the Aegean Bronze Age period ( 2500-1800 BC). It displays a clear city-plan with fortification walls and bastions, roads and drain-pipes, organised households with ovens, hearths, stone walls etc.